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  • 数控加工中心操作步骤
  • 本站编辑:杭州恒浦机械设备有限公司发布日期:2020-03-30 19:38 浏览次数:

1、开机准备

  数控加工中心在每次开机或机床按急停复位后,首先回机床参考零位(即回零),使机床对其以后的操作有一个基准位置。

2、装夹工件

   工件装夹前要先清洁好各表面,不能粘有油污、铁屑和灰尘,并用锉刀(或油石)去掉工件表面的毛刺。装夹用的等高铁一定要经磨床磨平各表面,使其光滑、平整。码铁、螺母一定要坚固,能可靠地夹紧工件,对一些难装夹的小工件可直接夹紧在虎上;机床工作台应清洁干净,无铁屑、灰尘、油污;垫铁一般放在工件的四角,对跨度过大的工件须要在中间加放等高垫铁。根据图纸的尺寸,使用拉尺检查工件的长宽高是否合格。

3、工件碰数

    对装夹好的工件可利用碰数头进行碰数定加工参考零位,碰数头可用光电式和机械式两种。方法有分中碰数和单边碰数两种,分中碰数步骤如下:光电式静止,机械式转450~600rpm。分中碰数手动移动工作台X轴,使碰数头碰工件一侧面,当碰数头刚碰到工件使红灯亮时,就设定这点的相对坐标值为零;再手动移动工作台X轴使碰数头碰工件的另一侧面,当碰数头刚碰上工件时记下这时的相对坐标。根据其相对值减去碰数头的直径(即工件的长度),检查工件的长度是否合符图纸要求。把这个相对坐标数除以2,所得数值就是工件X轴的中间数值,再移动工作台到X轴上的中间数值,把这点的X轴的相对坐标值设定为零,这点就是工件X轴上的零位。认真把工件X轴上零位的机械坐标值记录在G54~G59的其中一个里,让机床确定工件X轴上的零位。再一次认真检查数据的正确性。工件Y轴零位设定的步骤同X轴的操作相同。

4、工件CAM软件编程

   编程人员选择待加工的工件,通过CAM软件WorkNC对其编程,产生刀具路径,通过WorkNC仿真模拟模块对刀路进行干涉检查,干涉检查后进行后处理产生安全稳定的NC代码,传输到车间上机。

5、根据编程作业指导书准备好所有刀具

   根据编程作业指导书的刀具数据,换上要进行加工的刀具,让刀具去碰摆在基准面上的高度测量器,当测量器红灯亮时把这点的相对坐标值设定为零。移动刀具到安全的地方,手动向下移动刀具50mm,把这点的相对坐标值再设定为零,这点就是Z轴的零位。

6、加工参数的设定

    在加工中主轴转速的设定: N=1000×V/(3.14×D)N:主轴转速(rpm/min)V:切削速度(m/min)D:刀具直径(mm)加工的进给速度设定: F=N×M×FnF:进给速度(mm/min)M:刀具刃数Fn:刀具的切削量(mm/转)每刃切削量设定: Fn=Z×FzZ:刀具的刃数Fz:刀具每刃的切削量(mm/转)

7、开机加工执行

   每一个程序的开始时必须认真检查其所用的刀具是否编程指导书上所指定的刀具。开始加工时要把进给速度调到最小,单节执行,快速定位、落刀、进刀时须集中精神,手应放在停止键上有问题立即停止,注意观察刀具运动方向以确保安全进刀,然后慢慢加大进给速度到合适,同时要对刀具和工件加冷却液或冷风。开粗加工时不得离控制面板太远,有异常现象及时停机检查。开粗后再拉表一次,确定工件没有松动。

8、工人自检内容、范围

   加工者在加工前必须看清楚工艺卡内容,清楚知道工件要加工的部位、形状、图纸各尺寸并知道其下工序加工内容。

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1, start-up preparation, CNC machining center in each start or machine by emergency stop reset, first back to the machine reference zero position (that is, back to zero) , so that the machine for its subsequent operation has a reference position. 2, clamping workpiece, workpiece clamping before cleaning the surface, can not stick oil, iron filings and dust, and with a file (or stone) to remove the surface of the Burr workpiece. The high-speed iron used for clamping must be ground by a grinder to make all surfaces smooth and level off. Code Iron, nuts must be strong, can reliably clamp the workpiece, for some difficult to clamp the small workpiece can be directly clamped on the tiger; machine tool worktable should be clean, no iron filings, dust, Grease; pad iron generally placed at the four corners of the workpiece, it is necessary to add equal height Shim in the middle of the work piece with too large span. Check the length, width and height of the workpiece according to the drawing size. 3, the number of workpiece touch, the workpiece can be clamped with the number of touch number head for machining reference zero, touch number head can be used photoelectric and mechanical type two. Methods there are two kinds of hit number and single side hit number, hit number points in the following steps: photoelectric static, mechanical rotation 450 ~ 600rpm. The number of points to touch the number of manual moving table x axis, so that the number of head touch the side of the workpiece, when the number of head touch the workpiece to make the red light, set the relative coordinates of this point to zero; Then manually move the x axis of the table so that the other side of the work-piece, when the number of head just hit the work-piece note when the relative coordinates. According to its relative value minus the number of head diameter (that is, the length of the workpiece) , check whether the length of the workpiece to meet the requirements of the drawing. Divide this relative number by 2, and the result is the middle value of the x axis of the workpiece. Move The table to the middle value of the x axis, and set the x axis relative value of this point to zero, which is the zero position of the x axis of the workpiece. Carefully record the machine coordinate value of zero position on x axis of workpiece in one of G54 ~ G59, let machine tool determine zero position on x axis of workpiece. Once again, double-check the data. The procedure for setting the zero position of the workpiece on the y-axis is the same as that on the x-axis. 4. Programming of workpiece CAM software, the programmer selects the workpiece to be processed, programs it by CAM software WORKNC , generates the tool path, and checks the tool path by WORKNC simulation module, after the interference check, the NC code which is safe and stable is produced and transmitted to the workshop. 5. Prepare all the cutting tools according to the programming instruction, replace the cutting tools to be processed according to the programming instruction, and let the cutting tools touch the height gauge placed on the datum plane, set the relative coordinates of this point to zero when the red light is on. Move the tool to a safe place, manually move the tool down 50 mm, and set the relative coordinates of this point to zero again, which is zero on the Z axis. 6. Setting of processing parameters, sPINDLE speed setting in machining: n 1000 V / (3.14 D) N: spindle speed (RPM / Min) V: Cutting Speed (M / min) d: Cutter Diameter (mm) feed speed setting: fnn M FNF F F F F F F F F F F F F N: number of cutting tool (mm / Min) m: number of cutting tool (mm / RPM) per blade setting: FN Z FZZ: number of cutting tool (mm / RPM) per blade (FZ FZ Fzz) : number of cutting tool (mm / RPM)7. Start machining, at the beginning of each program, the tool used must be carefully checked to see if it is the tool specified in the programming instruction. Start processing to the minimum feed speed, single section execution, rapid positioning, knife, knife to concentrate on, hand should be placed on the stop key immediately stop, pay attention to observe the direction of the Cutter Movement to ensure the safety of knife, then slowly increase the feed rate to the appropriate, while the tool and workpiece to add coolant or cold air. Open rough machining should not be too far from the control panel, there is abnormal phenomenon timely stop check. Open the thick and then pull the table again to make sure that the workpiece is not loose. 8, workers self-inspection content, scope, the processor must see the process before processing card content, clear knowledge of the workpiece to be processed parts, shapes, drawings of each size and know the next process content.